Jacek Białek https://orcid.org/000-0002- 0952-5327

© Jacek Białek. Article available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 licence


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A wide variety of retailers (supermarkets, home electronics, Internet shops, etc.) provide scanner data containing information at the level of the barcode, e.g. the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN). As scanner data provide complete transaction information, we may use the expenditure shares of items as weightsfor calculating price indices at the lowest (elementary) level of data aggregation. The challenge here is the choice of the index formula which should be able to reduce chain drift bias and substitution bias. Multilateral index methods seem to be the best choice due to the dynamic character of scanner data. These indices work on a wholetime window and are transitive, which is key to the elimination of the chain drift effect. Following what is called an identity test, however, it may be expected that even when only prices return to their original values, the index becomes one. Unfortunately, the commonly used multilateral indices (GEKS, CCDI, GK, TPD, TDH) do not meet the identity test. The paper discusses the proposal of two multilateral indices and their weighted versions. On the one hand, the design of the proposed indices is based on the idea of the GEKS index. On the other hand, similarly to the Geary-Khamis method, it requires quality adjusting. It is shown that the proposed indices meet the identity test and most other tests. In an empirical and simulation study, these indices are compared with the SPQ index, which is relatively new and also meets the identity test. The analytical considerations as well as empirical studies confirm the high usefulness of the proposed indices.


scanner data, product classification, product matching, Consumer P rice Index, multilateral indices, GEKS index.


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