Manish Mohan Baral , Venkataiah Chittipaka , Surya Kant Pal Pal 8701-2095 , Subhodeep Mukherjee , Hari Shankar Shyam

© Manish Mohan Baral, Venkataiah Chittipaka, Surya Kant Pal, Subhodeep Mukherjee, Hari Shankar Shyam. Article available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 licence


(English) PDF


In history, the food sector has remained the most vulnerable and is accountable for many crises and food scandals, so to avoid this in the near future, it is essential to have better control over the flow of products and the usage of blockchain technology can achieve this control in the supply chain, which can add trust, transparency, and traceability in the entire system. This paper investigates the factors affecting blockchain adoption in the food retail supply chain and creates awareness among retail managers for its adoption in their operations. A structured literature review is performed to identify the factors and a TOE framework is adopted for the research. Factors of technology, organization and environment are taken as independent variables; the intention to adopt the technology is taken as a mediating variable and blockchain adoption is considered a dependent variable. The findings contributed that TOE factors contribute to blockchain adoption by keeping the intention to adopt the technology as a mediating variable.


trust, transparency, traceability, blockchain, TOE framework


Al-Jaroodi, J., Mohamed, N., (2019). Blockchain in Industries: A Survey. IEEE Access, 7, pp. 36500–36515.

Alsetoohy, O., Ayoun, B., Arous, S., Megahed, F. and Nabil, G., (2019). Intelligent agent technology: what affects its adoption in hotel food supply chain management? Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 10(3), pp. 317–341.

Antonucci, F., Figorilli, S., Costa, C., Pallottino, F., Raso, L. and Menesatti, P., (2019). A review on blockchain applications in the agri-food sector. In Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 99, Issue 14, pp. 6129–6138. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Atlam, H. F., Alenezi, A., Alassafi, M. O. and Wills, G. B., (2018). Blockchain with Internet of Things: Benefits, challenges, and future directions. International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, 10(6), pp. 40–48.

Byrne, B. M., (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming (multivariate applications series). Taylor & Francis Group, 396, 7384.

Chen, G., Xu, B., Lu, M. and Chen, N.-S., (2018). Exploring blockchain technology and its potential applications for education. Smart Learning Environments, 5(1).

Chiu, C.-Y., Chen, S. and Chen, C.-L., (2017). An integrated perspective of TOE framework and innovation diffusion in broadband mobile applications adoption by enterprises. International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences (IJMESS), 6(1), pp. 14–39.

Clohessy, T., Acton, T., (2019). Investigating the influence of organizational factors on blockchain adoption: An innovation theory perspective. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 119(7), pp. 1457–1491.

Clohessy, T., Acton, T. and Rogers, N., (2019). Blockchain Adoption: Technological, Organisational and Environmental Considerations. In Business Transformation through Blockchain, pp. 47–76. Springer International Publishing.

Fornell, C., Larcker, D. F., (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Gangwar, H., (2020). Big Data Analytics Usage and Business Performance: Integrating the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Task Technology Fit (TTF) Model. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 23(1), pp. 45–64.

Gangwar, H., Date, H. and Ramaswamy, R., (2015). Understanding determinants of cloud computing adoption using an integrated TAM-TOE model. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(1), pp. 107–130.

Ghosh, J., (2019). The Blockchain: Opportunities for Research in Information Systems and Information Technology. In Journal of Global Information Technology Management, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 235–242. Taylor and Francis Inc.

Gökalp, E., Gökalp, M. O. and Çoban, S., (2022). Blockchain-Based Supply Chain Management: Understanding the Determinants of Adoption in the Context of Organizations. Information Systems Management, 39(2), pp. 100–121.

Guo, Y., Liang, C., (2016). Blockchain application and outlook in the banking industry. In Financial Innovation, Vol. 2, Issue 1. Springer Open.

Hassan, H., (2017). Organisational factors affecting cloud computing adoption in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in service sector. Procedia Computer Science, 121, 976–981.

Hassani, H., Huang, X. and Silva, E., (2018). Big-crypto: Big data, blockchain and cryptocurrency. Big Data and Cognitive Computing, 2(4), pp. 1–15.

Hastig, G. M., Sodhi, M. M. S., (2020). Blockchain for Supply Chain Traceability: Business Requirements and Critical Success Factors. Production and Operations Management, 29(4), pp. 935–954.

Hew, J. J., Wong, L. W., Tan, G. W. H., Ooi, K. B. and Lin, B., (2020). The blockchainbased Halal traceability systems: a hype or reality? Supply Chain Management, 25(6), pp. 863–879.

Kamble, S., Gunasekaran, A. and Arha, H., (2019). Understanding the Blockchain technology adoption in supply chains-Indian context. International Journal of Production Research, 57(7), pp. 2009–2033.

Kamilaris, A., Fonts, A. and Prenafeta-Bold?, F. X., (2019). The rise of blockchain technology in agriculture and food supply chains. In Trends in Food Science and Technology, Vol. 91, pp. 640–652. Elsevier Ltd.

Kim, J. S., Shin, N., (2019). The impact of blockchain technology application on supply chain partnership and performance. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(21).

Kumar, S., (2014). Indian Consumer Attitudes Toward Food Safety: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 20(3), pp. 229–243.

Lengoatha, L., Seymour, L. F., (2020). Determinant factors of intention to adopt blockchain technology across academic libraries. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 244–250.

Lin, I. C., Liao, T. C., (2017). A survey of blockchain security issues and challenges. International Journal of Network Security, 19(5), pp. 653–659.

Makhdoom, I., Abolhasan, M., Abbas, H. and Ni, W., (2019). Blockchain’s adoption in IoT: The challenges, and a way forward. In Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Vol. 125, pp. 251–279. Academic Press.

Mendling, J., Weber, I., van der Aalst, W., Brocke, J. vom, Cabanillas, C., Daniel, F., Debois, S., di Ciccio, C., Dumas, M., Dustdar, S., Gal, A., García-Banuelos, L., Governatori, G., Hull, R., la Rosa, M., Leopold, H., Leymann, F., Recker, J., Reichert, M., and Zhu, L., (2018). Blockchains for business process management - Challenges and opportunities. ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems, 9(1).

Mezquita, Y., Casado, R., Gonzalez-Briones, A., Prieto, J. and Corchado, J. M., (2019). Blockchain technology in IoT systems: Review of the challenges. In Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing, Vol. 3, Issue 5, Special Issue, pp. 17–24. International Association for Educators and Researchers (IAER).

Mukherjee, S., Baral, M. M. and Chittipaka, V., (2022). Studying the Adoption of Blockchain Technology in the Manufacturing Firms. In Utilizing Blockchain Technologies in Manufacturing and Logistics Management, pp. 64–80. IGI Global.

Mukherjee, S., Baral, M. M., Pal, S. K., Chittipaka, V., Roy, R. and Alam, K., (2022). Humanoid robot in healthcare: A Systematic Review and Future Research Directions. 2022 International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data, Cloud and Parallel Computing (COM-IT-CON), pp. 822–826.

Mukherjee, S., Baral, M. M. and Venkataiah, C., (2022). Supply Chain Strategies for Achieving Resilience in the MSMEs. In External Events and Crises That Impact Firms and Other Entities. pp. 158–183. IGI Global.

Mukherjee, S., Chittipaka, V., (2021). Analysing the Adoption of Intelligent Agent Technology in Food Supply Chain Management: An Empirical Evidence. FIIB Business Review, 231971452110592.

Mukherjee, S., Chittipaka, V. and Baral, M. M., (2021). Developing a Model to Highlight the Relation of Digital Trust With Privacy and Security for the Blockchain Technology. In Blockchain Technology and Applications for Digital Marketing (pp. 110–125). IGI Global.

Mukherjee, S., Nagariya, R., Baral, M. M., Patel, B. S., Chittipaka, V., Rao, K. S. and Rao, U. V. A., (2022). Blockchain-based circular economy for achieving environmental sustainability in the Indian electronic MSMEs. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print).

Oliveira, T., Thomas, M. and Espadanal, M., (2014). Assessing the determinants of cloud computing adoption: An analysis of the manufacturing and services sectors. Information and Management, 51(5), pp. 497–510.

Önder, I. and Treiblmaier, H., (2018). Blockchain and tourism: Three research propositions. Annals of Tourism Research, 72, pp. 180–182.

Pateli, A., Mylonas, N. and Spyrou, A., (2020). Organizational Adoption of Social Media in the Hospitality Industry: An Integrated Approach Based on DIT and TOE Frameworks. Sustainability, 12(17), 7132.

Puklavec, B., Oliveira, T. and Popovič, A., (2018). Understanding the determinants of business intelligence system adoption stages an empirical study of SMEs. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 118(1), pp. 236–261.

Queiroz, M. M., Telles, R. and Bonilla, S. H., (2020). Blockchain and supply chain management integration: a systematic review of the literature. In Supply Chain Management, Vol. 25, Issue 2, pp. 241–254. Emerald Group Holdings Ltd.

Reimers, T., Leber, F. and Lechner, U., (2019). Integration of blockchain and internet of things in a car supply chain. Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Decentralized Applications and Infrastructures, DAPPCON 2019, pp. 146–151.

Roy, R., Babakerkhell, M. D., Mukherjee, S., Pal, D. and Funilkul, S., (2022). Evaluating the Intention for the Adoption of Artificial Intelligence-Based Robots in the University to Educate the Students. IEEE Access, 10, pp. 125666–125678.

Roy, R., Baral, M. M., Pal, S. K., Kumar, S., Mukherjee, S. and Jana, B., (2022). Discussing the present, past, and future of Machine learning techniques in livestock farming: A systematic literature review. 2022 International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data, Cloud and Parallel Computing (COM-IT-CON), pp. 179–183.

Roy, R., Chekuri, K., Sandhya, G., Pal, S. K., Mukherjee, S. and Marada, N., (2022). Exploring the blockchain for sustainable food supply chain. Journal of Information and Optimization Sciences, 43(7), pp. 1835–1847.

Saberi, S., Kouhizadeh, M. and Sarkis, J., (2019). Blockchains and the Supply Chain: Findings from a Broad Study of Practitioners. IEEE Engineering Management Review, 47(3), pp. 95–103.

Salam, A., Panahifar, F. and Byrne, P. J., (2016). Retail supply chain service levels: the role of inventory storage. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 29(6), pp. 887–902.

Seebacher, S. and Schüritz, R., (2017). Blockchain technology as an enabler of service systems: A structured literature review. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 279, pp. 12–23.

Subramanian, N., Chaudhuri, A. and Kayikci, Y., (2020). Blockchain and Supply Chain Logistics. In Blockchain and Supply Chain Logistics. Springer International Publishing.

Tashkandi, A. N. and Al-Jabri, I. M., (2015). Cloud computing adoption by higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia: An exploratory study. Cluster Computing, 18(4), pp. 1527–1537.

Teller, C., Holweg, C., Reiner, G. and Kotzab, H., (2018). Retail store operations and food waste. Journal of Cleaner Production, 185, pp. 981–997.

Tijan, E., Aksentijević, S., Ivanić, K. and Jardas, M., (2019). Blockchain technology implementation in logistics. In Sustainability (Switzerland), Vol. 11, Issue 4. MDPI.

van Hoek, R., (2019). Exploring blockchain implementation in the supply chain: Learning from pioneers and RFID research. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 39, pp. 829–859.

Wang, H., Chen, K. and Xu, D., (2016). A maturity model for blockchain adoption. Financial Innovation, 2(1).

Wang, Y. M., Wang, Y. S. and Yang, Y. F., (2010). Understanding the determinants of RFID adoption in the manufacturing industry. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 77(5), pp. 803–815.

Wong, L. W., Leong, L. Y., Hew, J. J., Tan, G. W. H. and Ooi, K. B., (2020). Time to seize the digital evolution: Adoption of blockchain in operations and supply chain management among Malaysian SMEs. International Journal of Information Management, 52.

Xu, W., Ou, P. and Fan, W., (2017). Antecedents of ERP assimilation and its impact on ERP value: A TOE-based model and empirical test. Information Systems Frontiers, 19(1), pp. 13–30.

Yusof, H., Farhana Mior Badrul Munir, M., Zolkaply, Z., Li Jing, C., Yu Hao, C., Swee Ying, D., Seang Zheng, L., Yuh Seng, L. and Kok Leong, T., (2018). Behavioral Intention to Adopt Blockchain Technology: Viewpoint of the Banking Institutions in Malaysia. International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research and Management, 3(10), pp. 1–6.

Zhang, X., Sun, P., Xu, J., Wang, X., Yu, J., Zhao, Z. and Dong, Y., (2020). Blockchainbased safety management system for the grain supply chain. IEEE Access, 8, pp. 36398–36410.

Zhu, K., Kraemer, K. L. and Xu, S., (2006). The process of innovation assimilation by firms in different countries: A technology diffusion perspective on e-business. Management Science, 52(10), pp. 1557–1576.

Back to top
© 2019–2024 Copyright by Statistics Poland, some rights reserved. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-SA 4.0) Creative Commons — Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International — CC BY-SA 4.0